Attacks on different layers application presentation session transport. Network security protocols and defensive mechanisms. A layer 2 switch works at the data layer layer 2 of the ip stack whereas a layer 3 router works at the network layer layer3. In an ip layer 3 network, the ip portion of the datagram has to be read. The network layer is responsible for packet forwarding including routing through intermediate routers. Several types of network attacks have been found up till now, each of them utilizes one or more security vulnerabilities in the tcpip protocol specification or some wellknown 3. Securing the network layera secure network is a web applications first line of defense against malicious attacks. This requires stripping off the datalink layer frame information.
The presentation layer deals wi th the translation. When using layer 2 switching, all broadcast data packets are forwarded throughout the network unless filters are applied. All the main seven kinds of networks attacks namely, spoofing, sniffing, mapping, hijacking, trojans, dos and ddos, and social engineering are described in detail. The majority of ddos attacks target the network and transport layers. An applicationlayer attack targets application servers by deliberately causing a fault in a servers operating system or applications.
Mar 19, 2018 discover some attacks that can occur in the network layer or layer 3, such as routing table poisoning, ip spoofing, and denial of service attacks, that could cripple a network. Attacks in network layer the network layer vulnerabilities generally fall into one of the two categories. The most popular protocol used in the network layer is ip internet protocol. Both can support the same routing protocols, inspect incoming packets and make dynamic routing decisions based on the source and destination addresses inside. Chapter 1 introduction to networking and the osi model. If we view the original check as a unit of data needed to be sent, we now have two envelopes.
On the internet, ip addresses are used to identify hosts at the network layer. The most significant protocol at layer 3 also called the network layer is the internet protocol, or ip. Apr 06, 2014 layer 3 refers to the third layer of the open systems interconnection osi model, which is the network layer. The physical layer layer 1 sits at the bottom of the open systems interconnect osi model,and is designed to transmit bit streams using electric signals,lights, or radio transmissions. The network layer provides the means of transferring variablelength network packets from a source to a destination host via one or more networks. Attacks at the data link layer university of california. The main functions of these tools and how they can be used to launch attacks are discussed.
There are 2 types of attacks in general, either they are passive, meaning information is being screened and monitored. Link layer and network layer security for wireless networks. The internet protocol ip is the most popular implementation of a hierarchical network addressing scheme. The protocols that are used in this layer include ip, ipsec, and icmp. Protocolbased attacks primarily focus on exploiting a weakness in layer 3 or layer 4 of the osi layer. Lisa bock, a security ambassador, explains the difference between the control, data, and management planes in networking, and provides to an overview of layer 3 attacks and techniques for securing cisco routers. Shortcomings of network layer security for wireless lans although ipsec can be used to provide wireless lan security, there are some drawbacks to using network layer security alone for securing the wireless lan. Layer 3 protocols are commonly referred to as the i protocols, though this isnt completely accurate, it suffices for the scope of the cissp exam. Detailed descriptions of common types of network attacks and security threats. Layer 3 networks are built to run on on layer 2 networks. Nov, 2019 a layer 3 switch is a specialized hardware device used in network routing.
The attacker takes advantage of this situation, gaining control of your application, system, or network, and can do any of. Different types of network attacks and security threats and. Presentation application session transport network data link physical layer 7 layer 6 layer 5 layer 4 layer 3 layer 2 layer. Layer 3 refers to the third layer of the open systems interconnection osi model, which is the network layer.
To illustrate the weakness of layer 2 networks, attacking tools for this layer are surveyed and discussed in this paper. Layer 3 switches technically have a lot in common with typical routers, and not just in physical appearance. The network layer is considered the backbone of the osi model. Securing the network layer is the only way to ensure your application is not flooded with attacks which could be easily blocked at that outermost layer. Layer 2 attacks arp spoofing mac attacks dhcp attacks vlan hopping. Network security measures to protect data during their transmission. A router works with ip addresses at layer 3 of the model. We will put our focus mainly on the network attacks happened around the tcpip transmission control protocolinternet protocol protocol suite, which is the most. Application transport internetwork link physical 7 4 3 2 1 bridges multiple subnets to provide endtoend internet connectivity between nodes 4bit version 4bit header length 8bit type of service tos 16bit total length bytes 16bit identification 3bit flags bit fragment offset 8bit time to. Network attacks, part 1 university of california, berkeley. Layer 3 and layer 4 ddos attacks layer 3 and layer 4 ddos attacks are types of volumetric ddos attacks on a network infrastructure layer 3 network layer and 4 transport layer ddos attacks rely on extremely high volumes floods of data to slow down web server performance, consume bandwidth, and eventually degrade access for legitimate users. The network interface layer, commonly referred to as the data link layer, is the physical interface between the host system and the network hardware. This article has examined only a few of the most common layer 2 attacks.
A layer 3 switch is a specialized hardware device used in network routing. There is no authentication in icmp, which leads to attacks using icmp that can result in a denial of service, or allowing the attacker to intercept packets. Starting from the physical layer, progressing to the data link layer ethernet, and moving up through the network layer ip and routing on to the transport layer tcp and udp, there are a large number of terms to be understood. Such attacks occur when the amount of data packets and other traffic overloads a network or server and consumes all of its available resources. In this paper different types of attacks in network layer are. Like every layer of communication has its own unique security challenges, the network layer layer 3 is especially vulnerable for many denial of service attacks and information privacy problems. There are many more, and some attacks probably havent been used or discovered yet. Protecting network connections n wireless access 802. Attacks at the data link layer university of california, davis.
Unfortunately this means if one layer is hacked, communications are compromised without the other layers being aware of the problem security is only as strong as the weakest link when it comes to networking, layer 2 can be a very weak link mac addresses application stream application presentation session transport network data link physical. Icmp is used by the ip layer to send oneway informational messages to a host. Securing the network layer against malicious attacks tdk. Layer three, like any other layer in the osi model, can suffer both active and passive attacks. Application transport internetwork link physical 7 4 3 2 1 bridges multiple subnets to provide endtoend internet connectivity between nodes 4bit version 4bit header length 8bit type of service tos 16bit total length bytes 16bit identification 3bit flags bit fragment offset 8bit time to live ttl. This layer contains hardware devices such as routers, bridges, firewalls and switches, but it actually creates a logical image of the most efficient communication route and implements it with a physical medium.
Before we dive into ip addresses, lets take a quick look at understanding binary numbers. Notice that the bottom layer is identified as the first layer. Network security is main issue of computing because many types of attacks are increasing day by day. Jan 06, 2011 like every layer of communication has its own unique security challenges, the network layer layer 3 is especially vulnerable for many denial of service attacks and information privacy problems. This results in the attacker gaining the ability to bypass normal access controls.
Attacks in the otheoreticalo category can move to the practical in a matter of days. A frame with a layer 3 address on it is often referred to as a packet. Inter network layer application transport inter network link physical 7 4 3 2 1 bridges multiple subnets to provide endtoend internet connectivity between nodes provides global addressing ip addresses only provides besteffort delivery of data i. An icmp flood is a layer 3 infrastructure ddos attack method that uses icmp messages to overload the targeted networks bandwidth. The book is aimed at all audiences even those with absolutely no prior tech. As the popularity of ethernet switching and wireless lans grow, however, the emphasis on layer 2 security has become more important. The computer network technology is developing rapidly, and the development of internet technology is more quickly, people more aware of the importance of the network security. The following four sections discuss the types of attacks that might be effective against a network layer ipsec solution. Rate limiting complements cloudflares ddos protection by allowing for precise mitigation of the most sophisticated attacks against the application layer. The network layer is responsible for packet forwarding including routing through intermediate routers, since it knows the address of neighboring network nodes, and it also manages quality of service qos, and recognizes and forwards local host domain messages to. Network security is not only concerned about the security of the computers at each end of the communication chain.
How useful is a layer 3 switch for network routing. Ip is the standard for routing packets across interconnected networkshence, the name internet. Overview attacks in different layers security technologies link layer security network layer security transport layer security application layer security. In this paper different types of attacks in network layer are examined and existing solutions were discussed. Discover some attacks that can occur in the network layer or layer 3, such as routing table poisoning, ip spoofing, and denial of service attacks, that could cripple a network. Network security entails protecting the usability, reliability, integrity, and safety of network and data. Internetwork layer application transport internetwork link physical 7 4 3 2 1 bridges multiple subnets to provide endtoend internet connectivity between nodes provides global addressing ip addresses only provides besteffort delivery of data i. The most common example of a protocolbased ddos attack is the tcp syn flood, wherein a succession of tcp syn requests directed towards a target can overwhelm the target and make it unresponsive. A layer 3 switch is a highperformance device for network routing. They are susceptible to many of the same l3 attacks as routers, as well as many unique network attacks, which include cam table overflow vlan hopping. It provides multiplexing of data streams, data frame detection and mac. It defines how data packets are to be formatted for transmission and routings. Attacks at the data link layer abstract intrusion detection systems usually operate at layer 3 or above on the tcpip stack because layer 2 protocols in local area networks are trusted.
Next, she addresses layer 2 attacks and techniques to secure cisco switches. Within the service layering semantics of the osi network architecture, the network layer responds to service requests from the transport layer and issues service requests to the data link layer. It selects and manages the best logical path for data transfer between nodes. To secure the network, a security engineer must be aware of a wide variety of attack types. Some layer three attacks are passive, such as sniffing or scanning.
Preface the goal of this book is to provide a basic understanding of the technical design and architecture of the internet. Types of attacks for years, the focus on security has been at the network edge or the ip level open system interconnection osi layer 3. In addition to the ip addressing protocol at layer 3, there is theip helper protocol icmp and its various messages that are used by networking diagnostic utilities such as ping and traceroute. Will help to understand the threats and also provides information about the counter measures against them. It is responsible for frequency and power selection, modulation and data encryption. Analysis of network security threats and vulnerabilities. An attacker sends forged icmp echo packets to vulnerable networks broadcast addresses. Pdf network security and types of attacks in network.
If an initial attack comes in at layer 2, the whole network can be compromised. Instructor the network layer, or layer three handles addressing and routing. In the seven layer osi model of computer networking, the network layer is layer 3. Routers operate in layer three and some of the main functions of a router are path selection and packet forwarding. It is an encapsulating protocol similar to the way ethernet is an encapsulating protocol. Different types of network attacks and security threats.285 599 859 1591 1298 801 1258 1282 1412 547 418 1390 1224 417 968 145 652 1050 727 1557 1018 1412 991 813 64 71 1295 821 427 1372 1583 1577 24 1455 1243 841 569 205 579 511 638 286 629 1424 1116